It ended in victory for the Venetians, who finally regained dominance over trade to the East. repùbbliche marinare Denominazione riferita alle città di Venezia, Genova, Amalfi, Pisa e, per un breve periodo, Noli, in quanto avevano (11°-14° sec.) La debolezza bizantina aiuta l'affrancamento della comunità; il doge, dal latino dux, diventa espressione della volontà locale e nel 814 fissa la sede a Rialto. Pisa and Venice gave support to the Siege of Jerusalem by the army led by Godfrey of Bouillon. Lo Stato includeva, nel XVIII secolo e sino alla sua caduta, gran parte dell'Italia nord-orientale, nonché dell'Istria e della Dalmazia e oltre a numerose isole del Mare Adriatico (il Golfo di Venezia) e dello Ionio orientale. Espandendo il proprio predominio commerciale tra X e XII secolo i Veneziani si arricchirono moltissimo, e man mano presero anche coscienza del proprio crescente potere politico.  Although somewhat confined by Venetian supremacy on the sea, Ancona was a notable maritime republic for its economic development and its preferential trade, particularly with the Byzantine Empire. Venice and Pisa entered the crusade almost simultaneously, and the two republics were soon in competition. The apex of Genoese fortune came in the 13th century with the conclusion of the Treaty of Nymphaeum (1261) with the Byzantine emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus. The Fourth Crusade of 1202-1204, originally intended to liberate Jerusalem, actually entailed the Venetian conquest of Zara and Constantinople. When Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa came to Italy to oppose the power of the Italian cities, Genoa gave its support to the imperial cause, although with slight reservations, while Pisa made its support conditional on the emperor taking part in the siege of Milan. Most of the Christian fleet consisted of Venetian ships, around 100 galleys. The treaty with Genoa was just the first of a series of commercial agreements. La quarta Crociata port… The republic of Ancona enjoyed excellent relations with the Kingdom of Hungary and was an ally of the Republic of Ragusa. Its social structure was rigid, and the lower classes played no part in its government, but it was advanced in other ways: in the 14th century the first pharmacy was opened there, followed by a hospice; in 1418 the trafficking of slaves was abolished. In exchange for aiding the Byzantine reconquest of Constantinople, this led to the ousting of the Venetians from the straits leading to the Black Sea, which quickly became a Genoese sea. Venezia, Repubblica di Formazione statale sviluppatasi a partire dal 7° secolo e affermatasi nel corso dei secoli come grande potenza navale e commerciale.. origini. From 1282 to 1284 Genoa and Pisa reverted to fighting each other. Sarà lento e durerà circa duecento anni, terminando nel XVIII secolo con l'annessione dell'Impero Austroungarico. Con la protezione dell’Impero Bizantino, Venezia fu governata amministrativamente dall’Esarca di Rave… There was a pause in the conflict on Frederick's fourth descent into Italy, but it resumed soon after his departure. The capture of Constantinople by the Ottomans of Mehmed II on 29 May 1453 put an end to the eleven centuries of the Byzantine Empire. To avoid succumbing to Venetian rule, these two republics made multiple and lasting alliances. Situato nel cuore di Venezia, a soli 2 minuti a piedi dalla fermata del vaporetto Rialto Mercato sul Canal Grande, Le Repubbliche Marinare Guest House offre sistemazioni con … The history of the various maritime republics is quite varied, reflecting their different lifespans. Genoa, also known as La Superba ("the Superb one"), began to gain autonomy from the Holy Roman Empire around the 11th century, becoming a city-state with a republican constitution, and participating in the First Crusades. Conflict between the two Republics reached a violent crisis in the struggle at Saint-Jean d'Acre for ownership of the Saint Sabas monastery. The Genoese replied with new alliances. Between 1494 and 1509, during the siege of Pisa by Florence, Venice went to rescue of the Pisans, following a policy of safeguarding Italian territory from foreign intervention. L'espressione repubbliche marinare è stata coniata dalla storiografia ottocentesca, quasi in coincidenza con la fine dell'ultima di esse: nessuno di questi Stati si è mai autodefinito repubblica marinara.Lo storico che introdusse l'espressione e mise a fuoco il concetto corrispondente fu lo svizzero Simondo Sismondi nel 1807, nell'opera Storia delle repubbliche italiane dei secoli di mezzo. In art, Ancona was one of the centers of so-called Adriatic Renaissance, that particular kind of renaissance that spread between Dalmatia, Venice and the Marches, characterized by a rediscovery of classical art and a certain continuity with Gothic art. The Venetian trade route went via Germany and Austria; Ancona and Ragusa developed an alternative route going west from Ragusa through Ancona to Florence and finally to Flanders. His expansionist project suited the Genoese. Genoa sailed under the Spanish flag, as the Republic of Genoa lent all its ships to Philip II. consider this decision to have been an error on the part of Venice, which yielded supremacy of the Tyrrhenian Sea to rival Genoa and simultaneously lost the precious help of Pisa in the east. The economic growth of Europe around the year 1000, together with the hazards of the mainland trading routes, made possible the development of major commercial routes along the Mediterranean coast. Egli era il massimo ordinamento politico e incarnava la gloria e l’autorevolezza della Repubblica. Ai ragazzi veneziani si insegna che per sfuggire ad Attila, re degli Unni, detto “flagello di Dio”, i loro antenati abbandonarono la terraferma cercando rifugio nelle isolette disabitate della laguna. Around the middle 15th century, Genoa entered into a triple alliance with Florence and Milan, with Charles VII of France as its head. La posizione privilegiata, fra paludi e acque stagnanti, protesse Venezia da possibili conquiste. Una storia, organica, documentata, aggiornata alle ultime scoperte, non solo delle navi mercantili e militari che la formavano, ma … STORIA, The maritime republics (Italian: repubbliche marinare) of the Mediterranean Basin were thalassocratic city-states in Italy and Dalmatia during the Middle Ages. Included in the Papal States since 774, Ancona came under the influence of the Holy Roman Empire around 1000, but gradually gained independence to become fully independent with the coming of the communes in the 12th century. The expedition was very successful and freed the Balearic Islands from the Muslims. Venice first agreed to an alliance with Pisa regarding their common interests in Syria and Palestine, but then counter-attacked, destroying the fortified monastery. At the beginning of the second millennium, Muslim armies had advanced into Sicily, and were trying to conquer Calabria and Sardinia. The maritime republics over the centuries, War of Saint Sabas and the conflict of 1293â99, Land battles and gathering in the Holy League. Ragusa voluntarily became a dependency of the Kingdom of Hungary, obtaining the right to self-government in exchange for help with its fleet and payment of an annual tribute. Thus, in the 10th and 11th centuries they were able to switch to an offensive stance, taking advantage of the rivalry between the Byzantine and Islamic maritime powers and competing with them for the control of commerce and trade routes with Asia and Africa. Le isole della laguna veneziana conobbero un sostanzioso aumento della popolazione a partire dal 5° sec., quando le genti della terraferma vi cercarono scampo dalle invasioni barbariche. On 13 October 1180 the Doge of Venice and a representative of the Pisan consuls signed an agreement for the reciprocal non-interference in Adriatic and Tyrrhenian affairs, and in 1206 Pisa and Venice concluded a treaty in which they reaffirmed the respective zones of influence. Venezia Il corteo di Venezia Una regina fascinosa. A decisive naval battle occurred on 6 August 1284. Amalfi had already lost complete autonomy from the second half of the 11th century, although it continued running its commercial routes and enjoying a large degree of administrative autonomy, at least in this period. The Genoese occupied it in 1255, beginning hostilities with the sacking of the Venetian neighbourhood and the destruction of the ships docked there. It bound itself to pay him a symbolic annual tribute, a move that allowed it to maintain its effective independence. It succeeded until 1532, when it lost its independence after Pope Clement VII took possession of it by political means. Daibert became the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem and crowned Godfrey of Bouillon first Christian King of Jerusalem. At the beginning of the 13th century, the city reached the peak of its power, dominating the commercial traffic in the Mediterranean and with the Orient. During this period Ragusa reconfirmed its old alliance with Ancona. They were providing Crusaders with transport and support, but most especially took advantage of the political and trading opportunities resulting from the fighting. The Communitas Ragusina began to be called Respublica Ragusina from 1403. Repubblica di Venezia: nel VI e VII sec., le popolazioni del Veneto, incalzate dalle invasioni barbariche, trovano rifugio nelle isole della laguna. Storia della Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia. 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This event aroused strong feelings that inspired Pope Nicholas V to plan a crusade. In 1218 Venice and Genoa reached an agreement to end the piracy and to safeguard each other. The agreement favoured Genoa, expanding its overseas territories. Amalfi, perhaps the first of the maritime republics to play a major role, had developed extensive trade with Byzantium and Egypt. These Italian mercantile centers also exerted significant political influence locally: the Italian merchants formed guild-like associations in their business centers, aiming to obtain legal, tax and customs privileges from foreign governments. Peace was reached on 6 November 1175 with the return of the Holy Roman Emperor to Italy. From 1039 Amalfi came under the control of the Principality of Salerno. However, their later rivalry dominated the western Mediterranean. After a brief revival in 1814, the Republic was ultimately annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1815.. Esilio per i ribelli Se c’era qualche sommossa, popolo contro nobili oppure patrizi in cerca di potere individuale, i capi evitavano rappresaglie troppo dure. Giovanni Gambacorta took advantage of this to rise to power, but he secretly negotiated surrender with the besiegers. The Battle of Lepanto was fought from midday on 7 October 1571 until the following dawn and ended in victory for the Christian League. Prisoners taken by the Genoese were in the order of thousands. Geographic history of the Republic of Venice. Storia della Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia. To realize his idea, the pope mediated between the two coalitions that were continuing to battle in Tuscany and Lombardy. Mappa di Massimo Pietrobon, Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia. Venice, in contrast, soon ended its participation in the first crusade, probably because its interests lay mainly in balancing Pisan and Genoese influence in the Orient. Towards the end of the 11th century, the First Crusade in the Holy Land began on the initiative of Pope Urban II, supported by the speeches of Peter the Hermit. In secoli di lotte contro i turchi, per esempio, alternarono aggressività e prudenza, conquista e ritirata: nell’imminenza della sconfitta preferivano pagare un pedaggio, cercando magari di mantenere qualche base commerciale, piuttosto che rischiare la distruzione. Preferivano esiliari i promotori delle sommosse indicendo poi il carnevale, indipendentemente dalla stagione, in modo che la gente si divertisse e pensasse ad altro. The city passed between French and Austrian control over the next half-century, before briefly regaining its independence during the revolutions of 1848. Some historians[who?] For centuries Ragusa was an ally of Ancona, Venice's other rival in the Adriatic. Quando Caterina Cornaro, regina di Cipro, nel 1489 succedette al marito Giacomo di Lusingano, donò la ricca e fertile isola alla Repubblica Serenissima che l’accolse con ogni onore proclamandola “Figlia prediletta di Venezia”. Genoa was guaranteed the right to trade in the eastern imperial lands, a new and profitable market.  Despite the link with Byzantium, it also maintained good relations with the Turks, enabling it to serve as central Italy's gateway to the Orient. During the Fourth Crusade (1202â1204) its fleet was decisive in the acquisition of the islands and the most commercially important seaside towns of the Byzantine Empire. La Repubblica di Venezia. The Crusades offered opportunities for expansion. Con i loro guadagni i veneziani costruivano palazzi di incredibile bellezza affacciati sui canali, una città tutta di pietra. Around the 1110s, Pope Paschal II asked Pisans and Genoese to organize a crusade in the western Mediterranean. Venice remained an ally of Byzantium in the fight against Arabs and Normans. Genoa remained relatively powerful until the last major conflict with Venice, the War of Chioggia of 1379. Da dove nasce la quarantena? Despite the setback, Pisa was able to continue its territorial expansion in Tuscany some decades afterwards, thanks to Guido da Montefeltro and Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor. Genova repubblica marinara: tanto potente da divenire “Superba” ... L’ennesima guerra appena conclusa contro Venezia, unita alle solite lotte interne, inaugurarono per Genova un periodo di decadenza a cui seguì il lento sgretolarsi dell’impero commerciale a vantaggio delle nascenti potenze turca e spagnola. Venice, Genoa, Noli, and Ragusa had very long lives, with an independence that outlasted the medieval period and continued up to the threshold of the contemporary era, when the Italian and European states were devastated by the Napoleonic Wars. As a sign of gratitude, the pope granted many privileges to the two republics. To avoid the shame of arriving in Genoa in shackles, Dandolo committed suicide by smashing his head against the oar to which he was tied. The many disputes, even the armed ones, were set aside in 1087 when they reunited to fight their common enemy. The formation of the Compagna Communis, a meeting of all the city's trade associations (compagnie), also comprising the noble lords of the surrounding valleys and coasts, finally signaled the birth of Genoese government. Chiamata Venetia, la "X Regio" dall'Impero Romano o semplicemente la Serenissima, questa città ha sempre avuto un ruolo fondamentale nella navigazione del Mediterraneo sino alle terre più lontane. In realtà la Repubblica si fondava su una formidabile flotta, 36 mila marinai in oltre tremila navi, 16 mila uomini occupati nell’Arsenale. forme istituzionali comunali e traevano la loro forza economica e politica dal dominio delle vie commerciali marittime. Austrian rule resumed a year later, and continued until 1866, when Veneto passed into the Kingdom of Italy. These cities, exposed to pirate raids (mostly Saracen), organized their own defence, providing themselves substantial war fleets. Initially called Compagna Communis, the denomination of republic was made official in 1528 on the initiative of Admiral Andrea Doria. * a cura di Ciro Cozzolino: L'Arsenale di Venezia. The impressive Christian League fleet gathered in the Gulf of Lepanto under the command of the Spaniard John of Austria to clash with the Turkish fleet commanded by Kapudan Ali Pasha. It lasted until 1133, interrupted by several truces that were sometimes observed and sometimes violated. These two events fuelled the resumption of hostilities between the two maritime Republics, which were expanding from the east to the west of the Mediterranean. The Venetians established a new fleet and besieged the Genoese in Chioggia in turn, forcing them to surrender in 1380. Its motto was Ancon dorica civitas fidei (Dorian Ancona, city of faith); its coin was the agontano. Venice did not intervene to help its ally Pisa in its crisis. It reached its peak during the 15th and 16th centuries thanks to tax exemptions for affordable goods. Avventura in terraferma Potenza di mare, Venezia tentò verso la metà del ‘400 l’avventura in terraferma, spingendo le sue conquiste fino in Lombardia, in Emilia e lungo la riva orientale dell’Adriatico, dalla Dalmazia alla Grecia. Amalfitan merchants wrested the Mediterranean trade monopoly from the Arabs and founded mercantile bases in Southern Italy and the Middle East in the 10th century. Other republics kept their independence until the Renaissance: Pisa came under the dominion of the Republic of Florence in 1406, and Ancona came under control of the Papal States in 1532. Venice conquered Ragusa in 1205 and held it until 1382 when Ragusa regained de facto freedom, paying tributes first to the Hungarians, and after the Battle of MohÃ¡cs, to the Turks. Amalfitans were the first to create a colony in Constantinople. The fortunes of the town increased considerably when it joined the First Crusade: its participation brought great privileges for the Genoese colonists, which moved to many places in the Holy Land. Il declino della Repubblica Marinara comincerà dal XVI secolo in poi. Venice stands out from the rest in that it maintained enormous tracts of land in Greece, Cyprus, Istria and Dalmatia until as late as the mid-17th century. Towards the end of the 14th century, Cyprus was occupied by the Genoese and ruled by the signoria of Pietro II of Lusignano, while the smaller island of Tenedos, an important port of call on the Bosphorous and Black Sea route, was conceded by Andronikos IV Palaiologos to Genoa in place of the concession of his father John V Palaiologos to Venice. Non è sicuro che Venezia sia nata così: a seminare il terrore nella campagna veneta furono piuttosto altri barbari, i Longobardi. Seconda Amalfi e ultima Pisa. Several Adriatic ports were under Venetian rule, but Ancona and Ragusa retained their independence. 20/03/2020 Historical Getty Images. The history of the maritime republics intertwines both with the launch of European expansion to the East and with the origins of modern capitalism as a mercantile and financial system. The confrontation led to the capture of the Venetian Admiral and Marco Polo, who during his imprisonment at the Palazzo San Giorgio dictated the story of his travels to Rustichello da Pisa, his cellmate. Storia di una Repubblica marinara, Venezia (421-1797) La storia di Venezia narrata da un punto di vista privilegiato: quello della Marineria Veneta. Sta di fatto comunque che le prime comunità organizzate nella laguna erano composte da profughi, gente che voleva mantenersi libera. Despite a series of expeditions, trade wars and naval blockades, Venice never succeeded in subduing Ancona.. Relationships between Pisa and Venice were not always characterized by rivalry and antagonism. Throughout the following century Genoa became the primary sponsor of the Spanish monarchy, reaping huge profits, which allowed the old patrician class to remain vital for a period. Da queste terre arrivavano ogni sorta di materiale, spezie ed innovazioni che hanno spinto la città ben presto ad accumulare denaro e … La Repubblica Marinara di Pisa Wikipediaa: storia di pisa-le origini Enciclopedia Treccani per ragazzi: Pisa-La potenza naval, il commercio, Pisa:una "Babele" Google Immagini-illustrazioni Pisa: una "Babele" La potenza navale di Pisa era tra le più potenti del Mediterraneo The Republic remained independent until 1797, when it was conquered by the French First Republic under Napoleon and replaced with the Ligurian Republic. The growing independence acquired by some coastal cities gave them a leading role in this development. Austria occupied the Republic of Ragusa on 24 August 1798. Nel 810 il figlio di Carlo Magno fu costretto a ordinare la ritirata delle sue navi, non riuscendo a navigare in zone paludose. Ragusa was fortified and equipped with two ports. Venetian rule lasted for one and a half centuries and determined the institutional structure of the future republic, with the emergence of the Senate in 1252 and the approval of the Ragusa Statute on 9 May 1272. Thereafter, Amalfi began a rapid decline and was replaced in its role as the main commercial hub of Campania by the Duchy of Naples. Commercial competition among Venice, Ancona and Ragusa was very strong because all of them bordered the Adriatic Sea. Venice, Genoa and Pisa had dominion over different overseas lands, including many Mediterranean islands (especially Sardinia and Corsica), lands on the Adriatic, Aegean, and Black Sea (Crimea), and commercial colonies in the Near East and in North Africa. repubbliche marinare, It never attacked other maritime cities, but was always forced to defend itself. Pera in Constantinople, first Genoese and later (under the Ottomans) Venetian, was the largest and best known Italian trading base.
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